By John M. Lipski
The African slave alternate introduced African languages into touch with Spanish and Portuguese starting within the 15th century, and ended in the Africans' slow acquisition of those languages. John Lipski describes the main types of Afro-Hispanic language present in the Iberian Peninsula and Latin the USA during the last 500 years. keeping apart valid sorts of Afro-Hispanic expression from those who consequence from racist stereotyping, he indicates how touch with the African diaspora has had an enduring effect on Spanish this present day.
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Extra resources for A History of Afro-Hispanic Language: Five Centuries, Five Continents
Matters were only settled in 1480, after which time Spain ofﬁcially ceased to interfere with Portuguese trade in Africa, although unauthorized ships continued to travel between Andalusia and the Guinea coast. Beginning in 1530, the French mounted a signiﬁcant challenge to Portuguese trade in this region. By 1492, French pirates had captured Portuguese ships returning to Europe with African gold; by 1531, some 300 Portuguese ships had been raided by French privateers. In 1530, the king of France commissioned the ﬁrst ship to legally travel to the Guinea coast, and despite Portuguese protests and diplomatic pressures, French intervention continued, both trading voyages and pirate attacks.
In the entire region, the Portuguese fortunes rose and fell as conﬂicts with and among various African groups resulted in changing alliances. 25 Portuguese expansion into Angola Immediately to the south of the Kongo kingdom was Dondo or Ndongo, whose ruler was known as the Ngola. Originally the Ngola was subordinate to the Manicongo, but Portuguese intervention helped break this dependency. The African leaders in turn allowed the Portuguese to establish a mainland trading settlement, in the territory that would thenceforth be known as Angola.
Some groups sold members into slavery to alleviate population pressures occasioned by crop failures or other natural disasters. Since many African societies were highly clan-oriented, this micro-ethnocentrism often permitted enslavement of non-clan members. Clan leaders derived their power from the number of clan members they could muster. Slavery provided one means of increasing the number of “honorary” clan members, thereby increasing the power of the clan chief. The differences with respect to American plantation slavery were considerable.
A History of Afro-Hispanic Language: Five Centuries, Five Continents by John M. Lipski