Dava Sobel's A More Perfect Heaven: How Copernicus Revolutionized the PDF

By Dava Sobel

ISBN-10: 0802717934

ISBN-13: 9780802717931

By 1514, the reclusive cleric Nicolaus Copernicus had written and hand-copied an preliminary define of his heliocentric theory-in which he defied good judgment and acquired knowledge to put the sunlight, now not the earth, on the middle of our universe, and set the earth spinning one of the different planets. Over the subsequent 20 years, Copernicus accelerated his idea via 1000's of observations, whereas compiling in mystery a book-length manuscript that tantalized mathematicians and scientists all through Europe. For worry of ridicule, he refused to publish.

In 1539, a tender German mathematician, Georg Joachim Rheticus, drawn by way of rumors of a revolution to rival the spiritual upheaval of Martin Luther's Reformation, traveled to Poland to search out Copernicus. years later, the Protestant formative years took depart of his getting older Catholic mentor and organized to have Copernicus's manuscript released, in 1543, as De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres)-the publication that perpetually replaced humankind's position within the universe.

In her dependent, compelling kind, Dava Sobel chronicles, as no one has, the conflicting personalities and notable discoveries that formed the Copernican Revolution. on the middle of the publication is her play And the solar Stood Still, imagining Rheticus's fight to persuade Copernicus to allow his manuscript see the sunshine of day. As she completed together with her bestsellers Longitude and Galileo's Daughter, Sobel expands the boundaries of narration, giving us an unforgettable portrait of clinical fulfillment, and of the ever present tensions among technological know-how and faith.

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Extra resources for A More Perfect Heaven: How Copernicus Revolutionized the Cosmos

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Per un gas perfetto U = U (T ), quindi TB = TA . Il processo `e irreversibile ed il secondo principio comporta che c’`e una variazione di entropia B δQ = 0. SB − S A > T A Per calcolarla dobbiamo considerare una espansione reversibile isoterma ottenuta per esempio muovendo lentamente un pistone; questo per` o bisogna che faccia passare il calore necessario, dato che dU = 0 ⇒ δQ = P dV , dove P dV = −dw `e lavoro che il gas compie sul pistone quando il volume aumenta di dV . 12) si ottiene SB − SA = N KB log( VB ).

La variazione di entropia per una generica trasformazione reversibile di una mole di gas perfetto si ottiene da dSCV dT + P dV = CV dT + R dV V dalla quale si ottiene, introducendo costanti di integrazione S = CV ln( T V ) + R ln( ). 13) 52 5 Meccanica statistica ed equilibrio termodinamico Terzo principio Il terzo principio della termodinamica dice che S → 0 per T → 0. Si pu` o dimostrare che questo richiede che il calore specifico C di tutti i corpi vada a CδT 0 allo zero assoluto, affinch´e δQ T = T rimanga piccolo per qualsiasi processo con T → 0.

2 Scopo della meccanica statistica L’esito di molti esperimenti compiuti su corpi macroscopici dipende dallo stato termico. L’interpretazione teorica di questi esperimenti in termini microscopici `e oggetto della meccanica statistica, che, a differenza della Termodinamica, presuppone la conoscenza delle interazioni fra i componenti microscopici del sistema e quindi dell’Hamiltoniana H(p, q). Oltre a questa, si suppone di conoscere certi parametri che determinano il sistema dal punto di vista macroscopico, quali pressione, temperatura, numero di molecole per ogni specie, etc..

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A More Perfect Heaven: How Copernicus Revolutionized the Cosmos by Dava Sobel

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