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Afganistans Local War. Building Local Defens forces by G.Jones PDF

By G.Jones

Монография американского института по оборонным проблемам рассматривает практику строения вооруженной силы в Афганистане. Изучение вопроса начинается от времен, когда афганцы оказали действенное сопротивление британской регулярной армии в 19-м столетии. Отдельно излагается практика борьбы афганских повстанцев против Советской армии во время Афганской войны восьмидесятых годов 20-го века. К исследованию прилагается несколько статей по историисоветской военной силы новейшего времени, об участии советских войск в войне в Афганистане.

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Someone else might define it less generally as the set of beliefs about the extent of the government's role in solving societal problems. Presumably, each of these definitions of ideology would require different indicators (or operational definitions) to provide a test of the hypotheses. Focusing only on the second definition, several alternative indicators may be suggested. The scale made up of policy questions discussed above certainly seems appropriate, as would a single question on the role of the federal government in solving problems or an item asking respondents to place themselves on a scale ranging from strongly conservative to strongly liberal.

This cannot be readily dismissed, but how can it be established as valid? This leads to another distinction between reliability and validity. The assumption that measurement error is random simplifies the task of estimating and correcting for unreliability. As will be seen, all that are required are some fairly simple assumptions and models. Validity is much more difficult to deal with since it involves the extent to which systematic sources of variance other than the theoretical concept are affecting the indicator.

Or (2) Sullivan, J. , & Feldman, S. (1979). Multiple indicators: An introduction (Sage University Paper Series on Qualitative Research Methods, Vol. 15). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Page 3 Contents Editor's Introduction 5 Preface 8 Introduction 9 Validity, Reliability, and Multiple Indicators 16 Campbell and Fiske's Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix 17 An Application of the Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix to Achievement Motivation 25 Costner's Multiple-Indicator Approach to Reliability Assessment 28 Extensions to More Concepts 35 Extensions to More Indicators 38 An Example Applying Costner's Procedures 40 Critique of Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix 47 Multiple-Indicator Models for Panel Data 56 Applications to Panel Data of Party Identification and Attitudes Toward Political Parties 66 Conclusions 70 Hypothesis Testing 70 Estimation 73 Multiple-Indicator Models: Some Final Considerations 75 Appendix A: Some Basic Statistical Concepts 76 Populations and Samples 76 Parameters and Estimates 76 Bias and Efficiency 77 Identification 77 Appendix B: The Wiley and Wiley Three-Wave, One-Indicator Model 79 Notes 82 References 84 Page 5 Editor's Introduction Multiple Indicators: An Introduction by John L.

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Afganistans Local War. Building Local Defens forces by G.Jones


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