By C. W. Rose, W. Ashhurst and H. T. Flint (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Agricultural Physics
But such molecular processes are so slow in action that some much more effective mechanism than molecular transport must be responsible for the efficient mixing in the lower regions of the earth's atmosphere, where both heat and mass transfer can take place at rates many orders of magnitude greater than would be possible with molecular processes alone. The reasons for this will now be given. LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW It was the now well-known experiments of Osborne Reynolds the flow of water in pipes which first called scientific attention PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF AGRICULTURE 47 to the two basically different forms in which fluid flow can occur.
It is the net result of the transport by the wind of some atmospheric property (such as heat energy or specific humidity) along a gradient of the particular property in question. Conservation considerations for the rectangular volume of air shown in Fig. 12) where (dC/dt) is the change per unit period in the conservative quantity stored within the volume whose vertical and horizontal fluxes are denoted by F and H. The storage term C obtained on integrating eqn. 12) is very small compared with the total flow per unit area such as fF0dt.
Thus the relationship between illumination and flux density units appropriate for the solar spectrum with a particular state of the PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF AGRICULTURE 21 atmosphere and for a particular solar altitude is not appropriate under different conditions, and will lead to large errors if applied to the radiation within vegetation or from lamps. In energy balance studies for example it is necessary to measure energy flux densities in absolute terms, completely ignoring the irregular spectral response characteristics of photochemical reactions or human vision.
Agricultural Physics by C. W. Rose, W. Ashhurst and H. T. Flint (Auth.)