By Craig J. Pearson, Ray L. Ison
The demanding situations dealing with grassland agronomists have gotten more and more advanced, with environmental and moral concerns assuming a better importance along extra traditional technical facets. This new increased version, with an elevated emphasis on structures considering, has been revised to mirror present issues, wisdom and perform. As such it addresses the necessity for a special method of grassland agronomy, delivering novel and provocative fabric to educate, stimulate and enthuse the reader.
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Extra resources for Agronomy of Grassland Systems
G. Spedding, "ñæ"; Nestel, "ñðã). The complex and dynamic relationships between humans, animals and grasslands give rise to the di¡erent grassland systems. Increasingly our relationships with animals are determined by technologies and our theories about progress. Thus, there is a positive relationship between per capita income and beef consumption just as there is a positive relationship between saturated fat intake, by humans, and coronary heart disease. Consumers and regulators demand di¡erent amounts of marbling in meat whilst in other societies bridewealth, or savings, are linked to livestock numbers.
In sown grasslands the biological processes associated with generation can be seen to occur within a larger system associated with grassland establishment (Fig. "), which incorporates commercial seed production (see Chapter ã). Structural and morphological di¡erences exist among seeds (Fig. á), seedlings (Fig. á) and mature plants. In this chapter we are concerned mainly with the seeds from plants of the families Poaceae (monocotyledonous, grasses) and Fabaceae (dicotyledonous, legumes). These families are the most common in grasslands; they occur in `natural' grasslands and they have been actively collected and selected for sowing.
Of breeding lines Wild accessions Landraces and unknown origin Total World-wide Totala Lolium perenne Dactylis glomerata Festuca arundinacea 8261 3100 2242 4259 7916 1763 4374 7073 5342 16 894 18 089 9347 18 344 20 155 9707 a Does not include collections held by private plant breeding companies. Source: Reid et al. ("ññã). 36 The emergence of grassland systems well-being. Some examples include: (i) substituting forages for grains; (ii) increasing forage supply on land unsuited to cropping, thus releasing other land; (iii) improving the fertility of arable land; (iv) promoting economies in the use of commercial energy, through biological nitrogen ¢xation, bio-fuels, animal draft power, and the use of dung for fuel and fertilizer; (iv) fractionation of pasture for food; (v) the provision of amenity and eco-tourism activities (after Henzell, "ñðâ).
Agronomy of Grassland Systems by Craig J. Pearson, Ray L. Ison