By Cooper D.J.
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Keyword symbols are generally used for enumerated values and to name (keyword) function arguments. e. there is no possibility of confusion about which package they are in), which makes them especially convenient for these purposes. 8 Common Stumbling Blocks This section discusses common errors and stumbling blocks that new CL users often encounter. 1 Quotes One common pitfall is not understanding when to quote expressions. Quoting a single symbol simply returns the symbol, whereas without the quotes, the symbol is treated as a variable: CL-USER(6): (setq x 1) 1 CL-USER(7): x 1 CL-USER(8): ’x X Quoting a list returns the list, whereas without the quotes, the list is treated as a function (or macro) call: CL-USER(10): ’(+ 1 2) (+ 1 2) 50 CHAPTER 3.
Here is another example of using quote to return a literal expression: (quote (+ 1 2)) Unlike evaluating a list expression “as is,” this will return the literal list (+ 1 2). This list may now be accessed as a normal list data structure1 . Common Lisp defines the abbreviation ’ as a shorthand way to “wrap” an expression in a call to quote. 4 Fundamental CL Data Types Common Lisp natively supports many data types common to other languages, such as numbers, strings, and arrays. Native to CL is also a set of types which you may not have come across in other languages, such as lists, symbols, and hash tables.
So the possible return-values of the member function are as good as returning T or NIL as far as any logical operators are concerned. 8 Getting Part of a List Subseq is a common function to use for returning a portion of a list (or actually any type of Sequence). Subseq takes at least two arguments, a list and an integer indicating the position to start from. It also takes an optional third argument, an integer indicating the position to stop. Note that the position indicated by this third argument is not included in the returned sub-list: CL-USER(9): (subseq ’(a b c d) 1 3) (B C) CL-USER(10): (subseq ’(a b c d) 1 2) (B) CL-USER(11): (subseq ’(a b c d) 1) (B C D) Note also that the optional third argument in effect defaults to the length of the list.
Basic Lisp techniques by Cooper D.J.