By Jost Heintzenberg, Robert J. Charlson
Specialists ponder the numerous roles that clouds play within the the altering climate--one of the least understood and such a lot perplexing features of atmospheric technological know-how.
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Additional resources for Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation (Strüngmann Forum Reports)
Radiative modeling is required to convert this into a hemispheric Àux. Small cloud changes are important because they can exert more leverage over ERB than equivalent changes in greenhouse gases. For example, a 15–20% relative increase in low-level cloud amount is presumed to counteract the radiative forcing caused by a doubling of CO2 (Slingo 1990). Lowlevel marine stratocumulus and summertime midlatitude frontal clouds have an especially large negative net CRF and impact on ERB because, unlike the case for tropical deep convective clouds, their SWCRF is much greater than their LWCRF (Ramanathan et al.
J. Stubenrauch. 2002. Did the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo volcano affect cirrus properties? J. Climate 15:2806–2820. , and J. Susskind. 1999. Outgoing longwave radiation from the TOVS Path¿nder Path A dataset. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 104:12,193–12,212. , J. Hansen, L. Nazarenko, and Y. Luo. 2002. Climate effects of black carbon aerosols in China and India. Science 297:2250–2253. Norris, J. R. 2000a. Interannual and interdecadal variability in the storm track, cloudiness, and sea surface temperature over the summertime North Paci¿c.
The ISCCP processing intercalibrates geostationary satellites (the main source of data) using a polar orbiter that Àies below each of them, which itself must be calibrated over time. One problem involves calibrating successive polar orbiters so that arti¿cial changes in global cloud properties do not appear at the transition between satellites, as was the case in the original ISCCP C-series dataset (Klein and Hartmann 1993). 4 Time series of longwave, shortwave, and net radiation anomalies averaged over 20°N to 20°S from the ERBS Nonscanner WFOV Edition3_Rev1 (red), ISCCP FD (blue), HIRS Path¿nder OLR (pink), and AVHRR Path¿nder ERB (green) data records.
Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation (Strüngmann Forum Reports) by Jost Heintzenberg, Robert J. Charlson