By David Tarnoff
Computing device association and layout basics takes the reader from the elemental layout rules of the fashionable electronic desktop to a top-level exam of its structure. This ebook can serve both as a textbook to an introductory path on desktop or because the easy textual content for the aspiring geek who desires to know about electronic layout. the cloth is gifted in 4 components. the 1st half describes how desktops characterize and control numbers. the second one half provides the instruments used in any respect degrees of binary layout. The 3rd half introduces the reader to laptop approach concept with issues equivalent to reminiscence, caches, challenging drives, pipelining, and interrupts. The final half applies those theories via an advent to the Intel 80x86 structure and meeting language. the fabric is gifted utilizing sensible phrases and examples with an target towards offering somebody who works with computers the power to exploit them extra successfully via a greater realizing in their layout.
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Extra resources for Computer Organization and Design Fundamentals
2 represents the formula used to calculate the duty cycle where both tw and T have units of seconds. 2) Since the range of tw is from 0 to T, then the duty cycle has a range from 0% (a constant logic 0) to 100% (a constant logic 1). Example The typical human eye cannot detect a light flashing on and off at frequencies above 40 Hz. For example, fluorescent lights flicker at a low frequency, around 60 Hz, which most people cannot see. ) For higher frequencies, a periodic pulse train sent to a light appears to the human eye to simply be dimmer than the same light sent a constant logic 1.
Nor is it immediately apparent to us that 10011011012 equals 62110 without going through the process of calculating 512 + 64 + 32 + 8 + 4 + 1. There is another problem: we are prone to creating errors when writing or typing binary numbers. As a quick exercise, write the binary number 10010111111011010010001112 onto a sheet of paper. Did you make a mistake? Most people would have made at least one error. To make the binary representation of numbers easier on us humans, there is a shorthand representation for binary values.
Period = 1 Frequency Substituting 2,000,000,000 Hz for the frequency in this new equation gives us the following solution. 5 Pulse-Width Modulation The last measurement of a periodic waveform is the duty cycle. The duty cycle represents the percentage of time that a periodic signal is a logic '1'. For example, Figure 1-16 represents a periodic pulse train where tw is about one-quarter or 25% of the duration of the period. Therefore, the duty cycle of this signal is 25%. 2 represents the formula used to calculate the duty cycle where both tw and T have units of seconds.
Computer Organization and Design Fundamentals by David Tarnoff