By M. Bogaards
This special comparative research examines minority illustration and powersharing in Canada, Kenya, South Africa, Fiji, India, Malaysia, and Yugoslavia. featuring a brand new inspiration of the 'consociational party', Bogaards explores how variety differs inside events and why it concerns for social peace and democracy.
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Additional resources for Democracy and Social Peace in Divided Societies: Exploring Consociational Parties
According to Vasil (1980: 60), the Alliance amounted to “a sort of quid pro quo arrangement between the Chinese bourgeoisie in the MCA and the Malay feudal elite in the UMNO”. The dynamic of outbidding poses a direct threat to the claim of the Alliance to being a grand coalition of segmental leaders. Outbidding has been countered by the stick of detentions and restrictions on political organization and expression, and the carrot of co-optation. An example of the first is the “draconian” (Mauzy, 1988: 222) amendments to the Printing Presses and Publications Act of 1984.
In fact, it has been argued that “the great decisions in India are usually made within the Congress Party, and the members of the 46 Democracy and Social Peace in Divided Societies Congress in Parliament probably do more to shape these decisions as party members than as members of the central legislature” (Palmer and Tinker, 1959: 129). The more recent reinterpretation of the national Congress as a “collection of state-based parties, with the Congress Party in each state representing interests unique to its region and with a weak national organization” lays more emphasis on state-level politics (Chhibber, 1999: 51).
Moreover, “any notion that India’s minorities had a veto over central and state government actions in the two decades after Independence is sadly at odds with the facts” (p. 779). Indeed, a study of the 1956 Union Council of Ministers, the Indian cabinet, found that Southern India in terms of both languages and state of origin was underrepresented (North, 1959). Still, minority representation in the first two decades after independence was more consistent than afterwards (Jayal, 2006: 152). Wilkinson (2000a) locates the high point of consociationalism in India in the pre-independence period and classifies the Nehruvian era as a case of control democracy.
Democracy and Social Peace in Divided Societies: Exploring Consociational Parties by M. Bogaards