By Kyle Rankin
DevOps may also help builders, QAs, and admins interact to resolve Linux server difficulties way more speedily, considerably bettering IT functionality, availability, and potency. to realize those merits, despite the fact that, workforce contributors want universal troubleshooting abilities and practices. In DevOps Troubleshooting: Linux Server top Practices , award-winning Linux specialist Kyle Rankin brings jointly all of the standardized, repeatable suggestions your staff must cease finger-pointing, collaborate successfully, and fast clear up nearly any Linux server challenge. Rankin walks you thru utilizing DevOps options to troubleshoot every little thing from boot disasters and corrupt disks to misplaced e mail and downed web pages. You’ll grasp integral abilities for diagnosing high-load platforms and community difficulties in construction environments.
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Additional resources for DevOps Troubleshooting Linux Server Best Practices
Yet, sometimes it’s not a duck. I’ve seen some people take the principle of favoring past solutions so far that if any symptoms sound familiar, they become completely closed off to any other explanation. The fact is, completely different problems can often have the same symptoms, especially 10 Chapter 1 ■ Troubleshooting Best Practices on the surface. For instance, an ssh session into a server can lag and seem sluggish both when the server is under heavy load or when the network connection is saturated.
If the modules are on the root file system, but you need those modules to read the root file system, how can you mount it? The solution was to put all those crucial modules into the initrd. As the kernel boots, it extracts the initramfs file into RAM and then runs a script called init in the root of that initramfs. This script is just a standard shell script that does some hardware detection, creates some mount points, and then mounts the root file system. The kernel knows where the root file system is, because it was passed as one of the boot arguments (root=) by GRUB when it first loaded the kernel.
Runlevels 2 through 5 are left for the distribution, and finally you, to define. The idea behind having so many runlevels is to allow you to create different modes the server could enter. Traditionally a number of Linux distributions have set one runlevel for a graphical desktop (in Red Hat, this was runlevel 5) and another runlevel for a system with no graphics (Red Hat used runlevel 3 for this). You could define other runlevels too— for instance, one that starts up a system without network access.
DevOps Troubleshooting Linux Server Best Practices by Kyle Rankin