By Richard W. Katz, Allan H. Murphy
Climate and weather extremes can considerably impression the economics of a area. This ebook examines how climate and weather forecasts can be utilized to mitigate the impression of the elements at the financial system. Interdisciplinary in scope, it explores the meteorological, fiscal, mental, and statistical features of climate prediction. Chapters through region experts supply a accomplished view of this well timed subject. They surround forecasts over quite a lot of temporal scales, from climate over the following few hours to the weather months or seasons forward, and handle the influence of those forecasts on human habit. fiscal worth of climate and weather Forecasts seeks to figure out the commercial advantages of current climate forecasting platforms and the incremental merits of enhancing those platforms, and should be an engaging and crucial textual content for economists, statisticians, and meteorologists.
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Extra resources for Economic value of weather and climate forecasts
The reason for this very high temperature is the greenhouse effect. Because of the very thick absorbing atmosphere of carbon dioxide, little of the thermal radiation from the surface can get out. The atmosphere acts as such an effective radiation blanket that, although there is not much solar energy to warm the surface, the greenhouse effect amounts to nearly 500 ◦ C. The ‘runaway’ greenhouse effect What occurs on Venus is an example of what has been called the ‘runaway’ greenhouse effect. It can be explained by imagining the early history of the Venus atmosphere, which was formed by the release of gases from the interior of the planet.
Like many events associated with weather and climate, El Ni˜nos often differ very much in their detailed character; that has been particularly the case with the El Ni˜no events of the 1990s. For instance, the El Ni˜no event that began in 1990 and reached maturity early in 1992, apart from some weakening in mid 1992, continued to be dominated by the warm phase until 1995. The exceptional ﬂoods in the central United States and in the Andes, and droughts in Australia and Africa are probably linked with this unusually protracted El Ni˜no.
15. More detailed information about the enhanced greenhouse effect can be found in Houghton, J. T. 2002. The Physics of Atmospheres, third edition, Chapter 14. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The dependence of the absorption on the concentration of gas is approximately logarithmic. For some helpful diagrams and more information about the infrared spectrum of different greenhouse gases, see Harries, J. E. 1996. The greenhouse Earth: a view from space. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 122, pp.
Economic value of weather and climate forecasts by Richard W. Katz, Allan H. Murphy