Read e-book online The Invasion of Canada: 1812-1813 PDF

By Pierre Berton

ISBN-10: 0316092169

ISBN-13: 9780316092166

To America's leaders in 1812, an invasion of Canada "a mere subject of marching," as Thomas Jefferson optimistically estimated. How may possibly a kingdom of eight million fail to subdue a suffering colony of 300,000? but, whilst the crusade of 1812 ended, the one americans left on Canadian soil have been prisoners of struggle. 3 American armies have been pressured to give up, and the British have been in command of all of Michigan Territory and lots more and plenty of Indiana and Ohio.

In this amazing account of the war's first 12 months and the occasions that led as much as it, Pierre Berton transforms background into an engrossing narrative that reads like a fast moving novel. Drawing on own memoirs and diaries in addition to professional dispatches, the writer has been in a position to get contained in the characters of the lads who fought the warfare — the typical infantrymen in addition to the generals, the bureaucrats and the profiteers, the traitors and the loyalists.

Berton believes that if there were no warfare, so much of Ontario could most likely be American this day; and if the struggle have been misplaced through the British, all of Canada might now join the USA. however the battle of 1812, or extra effectively the myth of the struggle, served to provide the recent settlers a feeling of group and set them on a distinct path from that in their neighbours.

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His family were recent settlers in Mexico, having taken up residence at Jalapa near Vera Cruz in the mid-eighteenth century. In 1810, shortly after the beginning of Mexico's long war for independence, the then 14-year old Santa Anna enlisted as a cadet in the Regiment of Vera Cruz. During the Mexican Revolution (18101821), Santa Anna served the Royalist cause with some distinction, rising to lieutenant of Grenadiers by 1815. Six years later he had risen to lieutenant colonel, largely on the strength of his abilities at pacification, and was attached to the staff of General Agustin Iturbide, chief of the Royalist armies in Mexico.

The newly crowned monarch did not last very long. Agustin I proved an inept ruler, with strong inclinations towards tyranny. Things not all going as expected, in late 1822 the newly minted Brigadier General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, once among Iturbide's most enthusiastic supporters, issued his Plan of Vera Cruz, which proclaimed a republican regime based on liberal, federalist principles, a move which was almost immediately seconded by the bulk of the former Revolutionaries. By the spring of 1823 Iturbide had fled and a republic proclaimed, but it would require more than a century before the nature of that republic was firmly established.

Tensions began to rise and incidents between the American settlers and the Mexican government became more frequent. Nor were relations between the Mexican residents of Texas and their government very much better. Under Spanish rule Texas had been a separate province of Mexico, with its capital at San Antonio. The creation of a federal republic in 1824 changed this. Lumped together with Coahuila to form the state of Coahuila-Texas, Texas lost its separate political identity. Relatively autonomous under Royal rule, the small Tejano community had few ties with the distant and far more populous Coahuila.

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The Invasion of Canada: 1812-1813 by Pierre Berton

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